Tax inspectors and other senior staff at HM Revenue and Customs will stage a national strike today over a number of issues including terms and conditions.
Members of the Association of Revenue and Customs have voted in favour of action in protest at a new performance management system.
ARC president Gareth Hills said: "Since the introduction of the new performance management system in April 2013, HMRC's approach has been overly focused on a level of poor performance that is not merited by the overall, continually improving performance of the organisation.
"Last year HMRC's compliance interventions delivered an extra £20.7 billion into the coffers of the Exchequer.
"That's enough to fund the cost of primary healthcare for the whole of the UK and the lion's share of that amount was delivered by ARC members.
"This is why ARC members deserve a fair performance system and a fair deal."
ARC is a section of senior civil servants' union the FDA, whose general secretary, Dave Penman, said: "HMRC needs to recognise that, when so many of their senior managers and professionals are prepared to strike - not over pay but over an unfair and bureaucratic system of performance management - then it's time to strain every sinew to avoid a dispute and get back around the negotiating table."
An HMRC spokesman said: "We are determined to improve our service delivery under the wider Civil Service reform package. Assessing the performance of staff through a fair and reasonable performance appraisal system is a key part of these reforms.
"We remain committed to resolving disputes through dialogue and customer services will not be affected by this industrial action by a small minority of our workforce."